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Site Posted 10/11/16 updated 8/14/22
The incredible brain maps on this site were compiled over six years of full-time research by a space shuttle guidance system engineer and software developer and were not funded by any company, religion or scientific organization. The training I received from my past experience has prepared me for this work and provided me with the insight to search for things that an engineer with my background would expect to find. I talk about the events and discoveries that led to the start of this project in the section below. It was an amazing and humbling experience to anticipate the electronics that an engineer would expect to find were right where I thought they would be. My engineering and software coding background helped me to "reverse engineer" my way through the brain. For instance,we have a spinal track that controls our visual reflexes and fires when an object moves quickly into our view (as proven in rat and monkey experiments). From an engineering perspective, the only way this system could work is if the eye contained a motion sensing circuit. So I googled "motion sensing eye" and to my amazement there was all the research I needed.
"A new picture emerges from these findings that helps resolve a vexing paradox between the retina's structure and function. Whereas the conventional wisdom treats the eye as a simple prefilter for visual images, it now appears that the retina solves a diverse set of specific tasks and provides the results explicitly to downstream brain areas -Eye smarter than scientists believed: neural computations in circuits of the retina
The eye works just as an engineer would have designed it. Here is an article that was published a few years after I had already reverse engineered what the retina circuitry is actually doing.
Now, studying mice, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have an answer: A neural circuit in the retina at the back of the eye carries signals that enable the eye to detect movement -Eye's Eye's motion detection sensors identified
The reason that nobody has ever compiled a complete map like this before is because researchers could spend their entire career on just one brain region. The amount of work they do to analyze this region takes many experiments, requires funding and may require work on live animals or through dissection. It takes a lot of patience to do what they do and I respect their efforts. But unfortunately most neuroscientists don't have any training in electronics design, programming or design engineering and they are working on essentially, the world's most advanced biological robots. Every connection on the brain maps I have compiled comes directly from thousands of neuroscience studies I had to review. So over one hundred years of research has been summarized in this work. The point to point connections you see represent hundreds to millions of parallel axons fibers (wires) feeding the same regions. For example, the parvocellular nucleus of the Medial Dorsal Nucleus of the Thalamus, labeled PC on the brain map, contains over 6.3 million different connections. And that looks like just one connection on the brainmap. Feel free to view these brain maps and use them to see what's happening in our minds. You will quickly understand just how incredibly organized our brain circuitry actually is and may ask yourself, as I did, how in the world does it get wired? It is my sincere hope that this work will lead to improving human health and happiness and the discovery of how humans can heal without drugs through a process of changing our thought patterns. Of course I also hope I can give all the glory to the Engineer who created it. They are copyrighted works but you can save them as long as you don't edit the watermarks, copyright or website links. In the next section I explain how the project began and explain in detail how many of these circuits work including how the brain is designed to detect faces, facial expressions and even naked body parts. You don't want to miss this!
View These Amazing Brain Maps
Compiled by a Space Shuttle Engineer
All connections can be verified. See List of Neuroscience Documents Used
|View Brainmap||Simple Map|
Did you know that you have a three axis gyro and accelerometer behind each ear? This organ, called the Vestibule, is similar to the sensor used in all military guidance and navigation including the Space Shuttle. I would know this because I was one of the engineers who "wired up" the Space Shuttle (see HAINS or HAINS) navigation system back in 1990 while working at Kearfott Guidance and Navigation in Wayne, NJ. My department was responsible for the electrical wiring of the circuit cards, motherboard and wiring harness which, by the way, is a tedious and time consuming task. One wrong connection and the system doesn't function. I later invented the first computerized thermal test for motherboards and wiring harnesses to improve the reliability of guidance systems used in nuclear missiles. Years later, I was promoted to supervisor of all computer aided design and engineering for the entire company. After President Clinton cut the defense budget, I left Kearfott to start my own software company and have been writing code for over 25 years. As you can see, I am highly trained in electronics design and programming. So imagine my thoughts when I first read about the vestibule and discovered its function in our brain. The vestibule provides linear and rotational accelerometer output, in three dimensions, (see How it works) to a processing system in our cerebellum to control our balance and stabilize our vision (see Vestibulocerebellum). Plus, it works to keep our eyes focused on a target while running (see Vestibulo-ocular reflex) and even to provide navigational data (see Inertial Navigation System Pinpointed) to track our movement through space. Whoa! As a guidance system engineer, I was blown away. The vestibule in our brain is the same sensor we used to guide missiles because it measures the linear and rotational acceleration in the X, Y and Z axis which is required to calculate distance traveled in 3D space. That's six degrees of freedom tracked by one tiny organ. This website from NASA shows the type of navigation calculations your vestibule is processing. From an engineering perspective, there is no way that this technology could have formed and wired itself. It was at that moment that I gave up my trust in "science" and started my own research to wire up all the vestibular circuitry. I found hundreds of neuroscience papers available online which trace the connections from the vestibule to other regions of the brain.
Researchers have discovered a sophisticated neural computer, buried deep in the cerebellum, that performs inertial navigation calculations to figure out a person's movement through space. "These calculations are no mean feat, emphasized the researchers. The vestibular system in the inner ear provides the primary source of input to the brain about the body's movement and orientation in space -Brain's Inertial Navigation System Pinpointed Date: June 21, 2007 Source: Cell Press
For someone not trained in circuit card design, these connections may be difficult to understand; for me however, this is what I was trained to do. As a guidance system engineer I was so overwhelmed by the complexity ("engineering") of the vestibular circuitry, that I spent the next six years of my life wiring up all the key circuits of the brain. I soon realized that someone who studies fossils or even a neuroscientist or doctor, would have no idea how a guidance system works or how the neurons and synapses in our brain work like the transistors and logic gates in our microprocessors. When it comes to the technology in our brain, most scientists have no idea what they are looking at or even how brain circuits work to process all this information. In their own words they say "it's a mystery".
Here are some of the key functions of the vestibule.
“One of the greatest mysteries in cognitive science is the human ability to recognize visually-presented objects with high accuracy and lightening speed.” -The lateral occipital complex and its role in object recognition -Kalanit Grill-Spector MIT
So let me explain what a guidance system engineer has discovered through all this research, in a way that someone who is non technical can actually understand. Keep in mind that I am not affiliated with any scientific organization or religion and am not interested in making money from this. I have been completely humbled by all this research and feel a great responsibility to share what I have learned with all of mankind; To be a light for those who have been blinded by false teachers; like I was.
How Brain Circuits Process Data
A human brain contains over 80 billion neurons. Neurons work like little batteries, building up charges by moving ions through a membrane. A connection between two neurons is called a synapse. A synapse allows one neuron to pass a signal to another neuron much like a transistor allows electricity to pass from one side of a circuit to another. Essentially it works like a switch, it turns the circuit on or off. So what can electrical engineers do with trillions of switches?
"Materials scientists at the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have now created a new type of transistor that mimics the behavior of a synapse. The novel device simultaneously modulates the flow of information in a circuit and physically adapts to changing signals." - Synaptic transistor learns while it computes Harvard University 2013.
Well, if you wire a few transistor switches together you can make something called a logic gate. Logic gates let computers make very simple decisions and if you connect many gates together they can perform calculations (See how computers add numbers). So if you wire a few neurons together you can also create a logic gate. Now we can see how brain circuits, if wired correctly, can work like our microprocessors using synapses and neurons, instead of transistors and logic gates. Using this logic we can now easily estimate the processing power of the human cerebral cortex of the brain.
The Cerebral cortex of our brain is the 2-4mm thick outer layer that makes all the folds. We see it as a skin or a shell covering the brain but it is the cortex itself that contains all the neuron cell bodies.
The human cerebral cortex is a highly folded sheet of neurons the thickness of which varies between 1 and 4.5 mm, with an overall average of approximately 2.5 mm -Measuring the thickness of the human cerebral cortex
There is an estimated 20 billion neurons in the human cerebral cortex, that make about 60 trillion synaptic connections. The Cerebellum, an area that stores and controls your synchronized motor skills and habits, contains most of the remaining 60 billion neurons.
“One cubic millimeter of cerebral cortex contains roughly 50,000 neurons, each of which establishes approximately 6,000 synapses with neighboring cells creating over 300 million interconnections" - Harvard University
From an engineering standpoint, the cerebral cortex is a six layer circuit card packed with transistors and logic gates at a density greater than five times our most compact microprocessor (the Apple A8). Then it's intelligently folded up to fit in a smaller space while also reducing the length of interconnecting axons. The minimum estimated processing power of the cerebral cortex (based on synapses equal transistors) exceeds 34,500 Intel Quad Core i7 processors while in actuality it could even be much higher.
“Brain circuits process information through specialized neuronal subclasses interacting within a network. Revealing their interplay requires activating specific cells while monitoring others in a functioning circuit." pg1 “we have shown the computational impact of different forms of inhibition on sensory processing.” pg 2 Division and Subtraction by Distinct Cortical Inhibitory Networks in Vivo - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
When I first became aware of all the circuitry in the cortex and how the brain was actually processing live data from our senses, I was frightened that this level of intelligence existed in the universe. I became so consumed by this research that I almost lost my small company that I have run for over 25 years. Now, after six years of researching thousands of neuroscience articles (see favorite quotes), I have put together possibly the world's most advanced brain maps that shows the incredible organization of technology in our brain and how it works. Below is just a small section of the large brain schematic I created, where each wired connection you see actually represents thousands to millions of parallel axon fibers. These wired connections are referred to as "white matter" by Neuroscientists. Engineers would call them the "wiring harness or mother board".
However the real engineering technology is within each colored box or processing region. These regions (Neuroscientists call "grey matter") are part of the cortex and contain all the processing neurons and axons (referred to as inter-neurons) which are wired at a density of over five times our most compact microprocessor. Each region is like a custom microprocessor and contains billions of wired circuits (up to 300 million per mm3) that are actively processing the inputs received from other regions. Signals come in from the axons of other regions starting with our senses, are processed based on its internal circuitry which is unique to each area, then output is sent to the next processing region shown by the direction of the arrows. For example, region 45b in the schematic above is a cortical area called the frontal eye fields FEF which controls our visual attention. With all those inputs and outputs to different regions and even outputs to the cerebellum for motor control, there is definitely a highly engineered circuit that processes all those signals. This system controls your eye muscles to keep the fovea fixed on a moving object in your visual field that has your attention. It works hand in hand with the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) areas LIP (also know as the Parietal Eye Field or PEF) and MIP which are part of the dorsal visual stream, to help guide your limbs accurately to an object in your visual field, through coordinated and trained movements controlled by your cerebellum (for example catching or hitting a ball). By watching the movement of a pitcher's arm the batter's eye sends data to area MT (middle temporal) which uses the cerebellum to calculate the velocity and direction the eye needs to move to track the ball, giving the eye a head start to track the moving object. This eye reflex is called "smooth pursuit" and the circuitry to process it is highly engineered as you can see from this diagram.
Now here is a full schematic that was created from the smooth pursuit circuitry
"Vestibulo-ocular reflex is controlled by the floccular lobe; saccadic eye movements are controlled by the oculomotor vermis and ansiform lobule, while control of smooth pursuit involves all these cerebellar visuomotor regions" -Visuomotor cerebellum.
Think of each box on the diagram as a microprocessor that's more advanced than all the electronics used in the space shuttle navigation system I worked on 25 years ago. Now you may be thinking that 25 years ago our understanding of electronic circuits was limited compared to today, however just the opposite is true. Today we have fast processors and high speed memory so our guidance systems are programmed mainly with software which allows for easy updates and far less circuit card design. The electronic systems built 25 years ago were massive hardware systems and the programming was done with electrical circuits and very little software. The brain is a hardware based system, it is not software based. There are far too many circuits in the cortex for neuroscientist to break down and wire. Trying to analyze the circuitry in just 1 mm3 of the cortex is much more difficult than trying to reverse engineer a microprocessor, it's that advanced. Someone not trained in electronic circuit card design would hardly appreciate the intelligence they see. The point to point wiring of these circuits are to electronic design as the software code is to an app. It has to be wired precisely in order for it to function. While we may not have the technology today to reverse engineer these circuits, we can recognize how the system works by analyzing the information that is being processed in each region of the cortex. Using MRI scans we can identify the regions of the brain that are actively processing information when a subject is experiencing a sensory input, for instance, looking at happy or sad human faces. Neuroscientists have been analyzing this information and mapping the white matter connections by MRI and through the dissection of animal brains and deceased human brains, so it is now possible to reverse engineer how the brain actually works without having to wire the entire connectome. This is the research I have been actively pursuing. By understanding how the brain processes sensory input, it is very possible that we can change our response to stimuli, heal ourselves emotionally, change our habits and keep our minds in a more peaceful, healthy state, without the need for chemicals or surgery. I'm not talking about just coping or having to always hold oneself back from anger, hunger, anxiety, worry, depression, addictions, etc. What I am talking about here is a complete change in the mind's self reacting function, its emotional reflex. There is a neuroscience term for this (see Relearning extinction). I already see it working and this is what I hope to teach through all this research. Believe me this is the knowledge that we are all thirsty for, it will be worth your time to continue reading and besides, it's free.
Reverse Engineering the Brain: from Vision to Emotion to
After six years of wiring up most of the circuits in the brain I have programmed myself to understand the flow of information and how it effects our emotion and ultimately our health; and I now understand the steps required to reprogram it. The key to all it arises from a human's large prefrontal cortex that allows them to modify their good/bad beliefs network; something that animals cannot do. However this network matures later in life, up to age 25 and older in some, and therefore leads many young adults into risky behavior. This network can be programmed with different beliefs that create different reward patterns with different health outcomes; which we will talk about in later chapters. First let's start by looking at the visual processing system, which is the most advanced of all the senses. The visual processing system is comprised of 4-6 billion neurons giving the visual processing system more processing power than 200 Apple A8 processors. Vision starts in the eye where light passes through the cornea, aqueous humor, pupil, lens, vitreous humor, then projects upside down on the retina which contains over 125 million rod and 7 million color cone photoreceptors. Light activates the photoreceptors causing them to fire, sending signals through a very sophisticated motion sensing circuit in the retina (see video of mouse retina), to the "only" one million output axons in the retina that make up the optic nerve. I say "only" because the input of over 130 million photoreceptors signals gets compressed down to only one million output signals right in the retina of the eye. The way this works is due to a processing circuit in the retina that is so advanced there isn't enough manpower to map it.(See: Eye Smarter than Scientists Believed). Within the circuitry in the eye is a multi layer motion processing system that detects the direction of movement of objects in our peripheral vision. Signals processed by 125 million rod photoreceptors detect objects in our peripheral vision coming into our path and relay coordinates through the optic nerve, not to the visual cortex where we see but rather to a region called the superior colliculus (SC). The SC has direct control of our eye muscles and moves the fovea (area of sharp vision) of the eye to the exact spot where the motion is detected so we can recognize a potential danger (example: a ball bouncing into the street while driving). A second motion layer in the retina detects objects in our peripheral vision that are getting larger rapidly, this layer fires the SC which also has direct connections to a spinal tract to control our limbs to make avoidance movements (example: ball coming at you). This highly sophisticated electronic circuit is what gives us our visual reflexes. The rest of the output from the eye contains signals from our 6 million color cones and travels down the optic nerve to the optic chiasm, where the left side and right side of each eye cross, then flow along the optic tract and connect to the one million neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus, where they are then wired to the calcarine fissure of the occipital lobe (back of the head) through over five hundred thousand optic radiations, and there, in the calcarine fissure is where you actually see, and not one pixel is out of place. This region is referred to as V1 of the visual system and from there the vision is split to two processing systems. The Dorsal Stream goes upward to the Parietal Lobe where our vision is used to coordinate the movement of the limbs, for instance picking something up. The Ventral Stream processes across the Occipital Lobe into the Temporal Lobe and this visual stream is used to identify what you see, like faces, facial expressions, objects, even naked body parts (yes it's true) and sends these images to higher processing areas for detection. The Temporal Lobe is strictly an identification area, there is no reward or emotion associated with recognition at this point. As the types of objects are filtered, for instant, the system detects a face, that part of the image is forward to both the superior temporal sulcus (STS) where facial expressions are read, and the fusiform face area (FFA) where the face is identified (if it's previously etched in memory). Recognition occurs if the object or face matches the pattern stored in the Perirhinal cortex (PRC) where it then passes that input forward to the Orbital Frontal Cortex (OFC) (front of head) through a white matter pathway called the uncinate fasciculus to process the stored emotional and reward value for that person or object. That signal is then passed forward through other areas like the amygdala to eventually arrive at the Hypothalamus, the body's control center, where it can modify your hormones (via the pituitary), digestion, hunger, heart rate, sexual behavior, and more.
Nudity Processing System
There is a nudity processing region in the occipito-temporal lobe that fires the insular, the extended amygdala, (BST) and then the medial preoptic area (MPOA) of the hypothalamus to initiate male sexual behavior. The BST and MPOA are sexually dimorphic meaning that they are different in males vs females (twice as big in males).
Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to show that the amygdala and hypothalamus are more strongly activated in men than in women when viewing identical sexual stimuli. -Men and women differ in amygdala response to visual sexual stimuli
In males, neuroscience experiments show that nude or partially nude images of female body parts, are the most highly reactive areas of recognition and increase as clothing decreases.
Moreover, the N170 amplitude increased linearly as the amount of clothing decreased from full clothing via swimsuits to nude bodies. Strikingly, the N170 response to nude bodies was even greater than that to faces, and the N170 amplitude to bodies was independent of whether the face of the bodies was visible or not -The Naked Truth
These images process automatically through the brain circuitry of men to the MPOA which activates the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN) to release a neurotransmitter called oxytocin into the cerbrospinal fluid (CSF) and into the blood system via the Pituitary. When oxytocin was injected into the spinal column of rats, erection occurs (see studyA studyB). CFS is flushed and renewed every 6 hours. So, based on existing research, the way a woman dresses can trigger an awareness in both men and woman (higher in men) but can also produce physiological changes in men that can last up to 6 hours. If a man wants to prevent the reaction, he must look the other way because the effect has been shown to not be dependent on current task goals. This understanding can finally explain how men can be stimulated simply by the way a woman dresses, which could hours later lead to the desire to engage in a sexual act, view pornography or even commit a sexual assault.
"We conclude that nude human bodies have a privileged status in the visual processing system due to the affective arousal they trigger" -Additive effects of affective arousal and top-down attention on the event-related brain responses to human bodies
Facial Expression Processing System
What is interesting about the facial expression detection network in the STS is that it subconsciously fires our reward, punishment, and emotional processing circuits based on the perception of happy, sad, surprise, fear, anger and disgusted faces. Because of this network, we can be unconsciously programmed to want or even despise something that others are experiencing. Based on the look of someone's face our brain can release dopamine from the Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) which wires in a "want" reward value for that object. It all depends on whether or not your trust circuit (see) is activated, which is required for learning. Negative rewards are wired through the habenula and rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMT) based on negative experience or even viewing someone else's expression during punishment, like watching a sibling getting spanked. (See negative motivational value). The RMT turns off the VTA to eliminate the "wanting" feeling. Do you understand how highly engineered these circuits are? It would take someone with my level of training or someone who designs integrated circuits to understand it. Not an evolutionary biologist, scientist or doctor, what could they possibly know about electronics design.
"Reverse-engineering the connectivity and function in a neural network made of 50 different component types (Retina) is a daunting challenge. The task would be more plausible if each of the neuron types had a part number stamped on it, much as one finds for components in a radio." -Eye Smarter than Scientists Believed: Neural Computations in the Circuits of the Retina 2009 Plank Institute, Harvard University
All these recognition circuits are located in the same areas of the brain in all humans and if there is damage to say, the fusiform face area, the ability to recognize people by their face is lost.
"the very fact that the FFA lands in roughly the same location across subjects, along with its predominant lateralization to the right hemisphere, suggests some constraints on its development. Second, neuropsychological patients who selectively lose face-recognition abilities as a result of focal brain damage are rarely, if ever, able to relearn this ability, suggesting that the remaining visual cortex (which is adequate for visual recognition of non-face objects) cannot be trained on face recognition in adulthood" -The fusiform face area: a cortical region specialized for the perception of faces -2006 Nancy Kanwisher and Galit Yovel
From an engineering perspective, because our emotion and reward circuits are wired to our Amygdala (AMY) then to our Hypothalamus and our Locus coeruleus (LC) the stress center of the brain, it is probable that we don't need any prescription drugs to heal, but simply a change in the way we think and react. We've all heard of the placebo effect and research has shown that optimistic people live longer. (see: Optimists live longer and healther lives) The reason drugs work in the first place is because they activate or deactivate the chemical networks already in place in our body. Our hormones are a type of wireless messenger network between our brain and our cells that's called the endocrine system. Your Hypothalamus, which controls your pituitary gland, is more than capable of producing all the chemicals (hormones and neurotransmitters) you need, but can also produce too much or too little leading to stress, anxiety, inflammation, cancer, reproductive disorders and poor health.
"Negative emotions and anxiety result in the up-regulation of serum interleukin (IL)-6, which in turn further activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and enhances the release of catecholamines and glucocorticoids" - Serum correlates of the placebo effect in Irritable Bowel Syndrome
By mapping the brain we can see how our behavior and the behavior of others, can control our endocrine system. By changing the way we think and react we can change our health, without the need for any prescription drugs. We can now understand how important it is to lay the proper foundation of emotional circuitry in our children during their development years, and how changes in society can lead to an increase of behavior disorders including ADHD and even Autism. You don't simply feed a child and watch them grow like a plant. Circuits are being wired up to record the emotional responses to stimuli, with each new experience. Every new recognizable object becomes wired up to trigger a lasting emotional response, which in some experiences can lead to lifelong phobias. All children go through critical growth periods that can lead to serious emotional development issues lasting into adulthood and beyond. This is why raising children in a safe, nurturing environment is so important and more and more couples are being forced to use day care (see Experience and the Developing PFC ). In February 2012, the German weekly publication Der Spiegel reported in its cover story that Dr Leon Eisenberg (many consider "the father of ADHD") spoke of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in his final interview, seven months before his death, that ADHD was the prime example of a "fabricated disease".
“ADHD is a prime example of a fabricated disorder,” Eisenberg said. “The genetic predisposition to ADHD is completely overrated.” Instead, child psychiatrists should more thoroughly determine the psychosocial reasons that can lead to behavioral problems, Eisenberg said. Are there fights with parents, are there are problems in the family? Such questions are important, but they take a lot of time, Eisenberg said, adding with a sigh: “Prescribe a pill for it very quickly.” - published in German in Der Spiegel magazine in 2012 (see Snopes and wikipedia)
Leon Eisenberg wrote a ‘mini-autobiography’ called "Were We Asleep at the Switch?" where he suggested that a switch from 'mind' to 'body' has taken place in psychiatry as a discipline, which led to overuse of medication. He also argued that, while medical scientists were worrying about the tedious science at the base of medical practice and healthcare decisions for the general public, "money" and monied interests had been making de facto decisions for the populace about how things that affected them deeply were going to be done.
While academic psychiatrists sought evidence in clinic and laboratory for health-related decisions, the 'monetarization of medicine' overruled science and made large de facto decisions for the profession. -Were We Asleep at the Switch?, Leon Eisenberg
Is Evolution Dead?
All this research proves that Darwin was right about one thing, no not that 34,500 microprocessors can evolve and wire themselves without instructions, that is an absurd thing to believe, especially if one knows anything about engineering. This is why Darwin called it a "theory" in the first place. He was awaiting future evidence that never materialized in favor of his theory, and quite the contrary, the new evidence has crushed it. But Darwin also wrote about a system of universal facial expression in his book "The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals"(1872). This facial expression system has been proven to be true and thus confirmed by research that it's an integral part of the design of the brain and the sense of emotion. See, our brain has a microprocessing area in the superior temporal sulcus (STS) that processes the facial expressions we see (see Facial expression and gaze-direction in the human superior temporal sulcus) and a processing area in the amygdala that activates the facial expression muscles connected to our facial nerve that display how we feel (see Self-monitoring of social facial expressions and Amygdalo-motor pathway and the control of facial expressions). As a design engineer and programmer it's easy for me to see that these two processing systems had to be designed to work together, along with all the muscles and wiring necessary to control them. One without the other would provide no benefit from these extra muscles in our face that are only used to produce facial expressions.
“The human face is an engineering marvel. Underneath our skin, a large number of muscles allow us to produce many conﬁgurations" -A Model of the Preception of Facial Expressions of Emotion by Humans
With the help of our cell phone cameras we can see how multiple faces can be recognized and tagged in an image and used for special processing, which in the case of the camera is for focusing. However the brain has a similar system that not only can detect faces but can also detect every type of object that we can recognize. Otherwise we couldn't recognize it. Now try to imagine the amount of "live" image processing that's going on with your vision. Once a face in found in our visual field, that data is extracted and forwarded to the superior temporal sulcus (STS) to extract the emotion. We see this system in place when we smile at a newborn child. It's already wired up and running at birth so the child can begin recording it's emotional memories. Now think awhile about this, with one processor our cell phone can backup all our pictures, video and data to the cloud without any wires? What is your brain capable of backing up with over 34,500 processors. (That's another story we'll get to later)
"Visual object recognition is essential for most everyday tasks, including reading, navigation, and face identification. In a small fraction of a second (approximately 150 ms), we can recognize complex shapes and categorize objects and scenes" How cortical neurons help us see: visual recognition in the human brain, -Julie Blumberg and Gabriel Kreiman 2010
Neuroscientists may spend their entire life studying just one region of the brain, never quite understanding how all these systems work together, and Darwin didn't even understand the technology the brain uses to process these emotions; he couldn't because the transistor had not been discovered yet and nobody knew how to use electrical switches to perform calculations. Even today, most Neuroscientists still have no idea how data is actually processed in the brain. After all this is hi-tech engineering we are seeing. For the brain to process a facial expression it must extract a clip of vision, scan it to find faces in the image, then send that data to the STS to analyze the facial expression and also to the FFA to recognize who it is. Do you understand the engineering involved here? Now, all the instructions to wire up this facial expression microprocessor must be stored somewhere in order to build all these advanced circuits, we're talking billions of connections just in the STS. The wiring connection schematic between transistors are what allow circuits to perform their mathematical functions, just as the lines of software code allow an app to control the microprocessor and perform it's function. You can't wire up a system this advanced without instructions as it would defy the laws of engineering. Remember, we are talking about over 34,500 unique microprocessors with billions of connections in each and that's just in the cortex. So where is all this wiring data stored in order to assemble a newborn child? Well it absolutely has to be in the DNA code. According to science, all that is known about our DNA are the instructions for building proteins from amino acids which is only 4% of the entire code. Building proteins from a code is an incredible engineering feat in itself as these chains of amino acid (some up to 25,000 long) fold up by the laws of atomic attraction to form mechanical parts (see how it's done). This, however, does not answer the question of "Where are the instructions needed to wire 80 billion neurons?" or "Where are the instructions to assemble all these proteins together to form a working body?" So according to the Laws of Design Engineering, all science has given us so far is a "parts list" for making proteins. The muscle systems in our body are also very complex and require two or more muscles to function since muscles only contract. (how muscles contract) Each muscle pair must be attached to opposite sides of a joint so the contraction of one muscle stretches the other. Then there needs to be electronics in the spinal column to control these muscles so the firing of one motor neuron inhibits the other. There also needs to be connections in the Cerebellum to track the movement of each muscle pair. Do you realize how highly engineered this muscle control system is? Where are the assembly instructions to build it? So even if scientists claim that it took millions of years of natural selection to evolve, where is the assembly code that is required to build and wire this "evolved" system of electronics with the processing power of over 34,500 i7 quad core processors? Where is the assembly code to build your bone structure, muscle systems, joints, ligaments, tendons, arteries, etc?
After doing some DNA research (see DNA) I was amazed to discover that DNA is now being used to store electronic data like programs, pictures and PDF files. A Harvard Scientist estimated the storage capacity of DNA to be 215 million Gigabytes per gram. Because DNA uses 4 bases where our modern computers use just 2, DNA is about 16 times more efficient. I was able to estimate the storage capacity of one cell of DNA to be over three gigabytes. With all this storage capacity, it was easy to see that the 96% of the DNA that science conveniently calls "junk" has to contain all the wiring and assembly code.
Understanding how the brain actually works, how the instructions to wire up 80 billion neurons can be stored in our DNA, and seeing all of this organized circuitry was a very humbling experience for this engineer. Ironically I also began reading the Bible around the same time. Actually, there were many things going on in my personal life at that time and the signs that led me to all this research were a miracle in itself (see "The Story" when I finish writing it), but it was my oldest son who came home one day with a Bible in his hand while dating a girl who was "born-again". He asked me to help him and when I started reading the Bible, I realized that the advice it contained was matching the design of the brain I was reverse engineering. I can imagine that I am the first man to ever read scripture while understanding how the brain actually works. Now all this may sound crazy and just a few years ago I probably would have agreed, but after six year of brain research, seeing all this organization and complexity and understanding, as an engineer and programmer, the basics of how it works, I realized how foolish I was to believe anything built with this kind of technology could evolve on its own. I could no longer believe that even one cubic millimeter of the brain, that I now know contains over 300 million connections, could ever evolve. I now realize that, from an engineering perspective, that Evolution was simply nonsense. So how could I, an engineer who built guidance systems, have been fooled into believing this without even doing some research? I became so disappointed in myself and the things I had been teaching my family and all the suffering it had caused in our home because I now realize the power that the right words have on a child's mind.
So now, in light of all this research, do you still believe that all of this circuitry can wire itself? If I tell you that this system is hundreds of thousands of times the complexity of the space shuttle navigation system would you still believe it? Even if I tell you that it would take me an entire lifetime just to wire up one eye. Yet a child can be wired and born in only 9 months using DNA as the blueprint to instruct the cells what to build. So now that you can see the complexity of the wiring map of your brain, do you still believe that all these circuits can be wired up by chance, without any wiring instructions? Watch a leading evolutionary biologist deceiving viewers by explaining how the eye could evolve, ignoring all the complexity of the eye circuits (billions of connections) which he must know about and instead trying to convince us that the eye works like a pinhole camera without any electronics. He doesn't even explain that in the eye the lens turns the vision upside down and backwards. It gets turned into electrical signals and gets flipped in the back of the brain where we actually see. Now how can all those pixels wire themselves so accurately without instructions? (see eye evolution deception).
It's been over 10 years of Bible research and you would be amazed at the technology revealed in the Bible. One day I will write about that. Here are some of my favorite Bible verses that foretell a time when our wisdom becomes foolishness.
I am the Lord, the Maker of all things, who stretches out the heavens, who spreads out the earth by myself, who foils the signs of false prophets and makes fools of diviners, who overthrows the learning of the wise and turns it into nonsense.
And that what evolution is, utter nonsense, complete deception. Acting like one is intelligent so others will feel foolish by doubting them. I have to admit, they deceived me for a long time but now they have become the fools.
For since the creation of the world God’s invisible qualities—his eternal power and divine nature—have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that people are without excuse. For although they knew God, they neither glorified him as God nor gave thanks to him, but their thinking became futile and their foolish hearts were darkened. Although they claimed to be wise, they became fools"
Listen to a compelling testimony from a minister I met.
For this is what the Lord says: You were sold for nothing, and without money you will be redeemed.
Please help to spread the good news! I am keeping this website free.
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My brothers and sisters, if one of you should wander from the truth and someone should bring that person back, remember this: Whoever turns a sinner from the error of their way will save them from death and cover over a multitude of sins.
Then Jesus answered, "Were not ten cleansed? Where are the nine? Was no one found to return and give praise to God except this foreigner?"
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The Servant: The messenger sent to teach us why we are suffering
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